Flat foot, also known as pes planus or calcaneal valgus, is a problem that foot and ankle specialists are asked about frequently. It is present in the community among all ages. It is often painless, particularly in children who have a natural tendency to develop an arch during the first decade of development. However, painful symptoms can develop at any age as improper alignment leads to abnormal stresses and deformity.
Initial therapies include modified and/or custom shoe gear, orthotics and bracing along with activity modification. Surgical procedures vary, depending on extent and location of deformity, and can include subtalar implant (or arthroereisis), osteotomy, tendon lengthening, tendon transfer and joint fusion.